Geological Museum​

5-museum.png Visiting Hours: 9:00 am to 3:00 pm Ticket price: 25 pounds per person

The Egyptian Geological Museum was established and opened for public in 1904, as a part of the Egyptian Geological Survey (EGS) founded earlier in 1896. The museum introduces the Egyptian land and history to visitors. Egypt is the place where civilization started. Mining and metallurgy started some thousands of years ago, in predynastic times. Egyptians were the pioneers in extraction and utilization of metals and stones, the essential basics of civilization. They were the first discover gold and copper and mined them from the Eastern Desert and Sinai . The first geological map known in the world was drawn to represent the Fawakhir gold mine on a papyrus in Turin Museum at present. Iron was smelted from ores in Aswan. Smelting was also carried out at Nokratis and Defna in Delta region . This added to the Egyptian power and prosperity. During the Ptolemaic and Byzantien periods granite was quarried from Mons Claudianus, the Imperial Porphyry from Gabal Dokhan and the Breccia Verd from Wadi Hammamat . These were used in decorating palaces all over the Roman Empire. Egypt was the first to produce famous types of glass. Precious stones, specially turquoise, emerald and peridot were picked and turned into very pretty jewelry by the ancients.The geological history of Egypt as indicated by its fauna and flora is displayed in the Museum. The unique collection of the Fayum vertebrate fossils are on display. A large collections of Egyptian and other famous minerals, ores and rocks are in the show cases, In addition, a very valuable collection of meteorites picked from Egypt and from other places in the world, are displayed. These inculude the famous Egyptian eorite “Nakhlite” believed to be from Mars. The Museum is served by a library with references going back to 1778, in addition to up to date references and bibliographies. This is available to the public and scientists. The Museum also includes some specialized laboratories for mineralogical, petrological and paleontological (both vertebrate and invertebrate) studies. Models for rare vertebrate fossils are made to facilitate detailed studies and preserve the original specimens. The Museum shares in the studies conducted on the protectorates and outstanding geological features in order to raise the public environmental awareness. Joint researches and cooperation with other international geological surveys, universities and museums are among the major concerns of the Museum. Cooperation with Duke University (U.S.A.), Toronto (Canada) and Milano Geological Museums (Italy), Museums of Natural History in London (U.K.) are good examples. Also, support to local museum in universities and schools is offered. This includes providing samples and training secondary school teachers and specialists from other scientific institutions.